In college I was taught in Java, with a bit of C, and even less of other languages like Python, ML, Prolog. I and Tristan learned C++ to write our first game. Later I took more software engineering courses and learned some new patterns for complicated projects. I wrote a pile of libraries in C++ and got a pretty good handle on it. At Bunkspeed I continued with C++ but we pretty quickly replaced that with C#, which I worked with from version 1.1 until I left. World has been almost entirely C# since its inception in 2007. Now for work I'm working with C++ again, now for approaching 2 years.
So I have a pretty good comparison now of C++ and C#, both used for larger codebases. Bunkspeed's main product was pushing 600k, my current work is around 1M, and the World project is around 150k. I admit I do have better experience in C#; I try to keep that in mind.
I firmly believe that what you can do in one you can do in the other. The limitations of both can be circumvented to achieve the same ends.
C# has the reputation of being slow, and the problem of being single platform and having a harder time interacting with 3rd party libraries (which are usually native). The slowness problem I think is a red herring; optimizing is usually done at the algorithmic level, which is indifferent to language. The GC and memory management can be controlled if you desperately need to, but honestly you do not. .NET Native coming out soon should alleviate the rest of whatever performance issues exist. The single-platform issue is improving with Mono and recent C# changes announced by Microsoft. The third party library issue is more complicated and I don't know of a good solution. P/Invoke is not a good solution, nor is C++/CLI.
C++ has the reputation of being fast and powerful, but complex, low-level and imprecise. The low-level issue can be resolved by writing code within C++ to add high-level features. C++ code MUST manage memory, and so large C++ codebases MUST write something to track pointers and allocations. In the end these systems approximate garbage collection, and they work. By 'imprecise', I mean that there are often unanswerable questions, the answers for which are not apparent immediately in the code. The size of pointers and integers, the nature of strings, how 'out' parameters are passed, naming conventions, includes ordering, namespace management, smart-pointer management, etc. All of these things have to be handled in some way by the programmer. And they can be with great grace and power, but they must be handled.
Herein lies my point. C#'s failings are fixed by external structure. C++'s failings are fixed by internal structure.
The upper limit of manageable complexity in C++ is lower, because some of that manageable complexity is ubiquitous and cannot be ignored. When writing in a large C++ codebase, you cannot forget about the internal structures that handle C++'s limitations. Every last line needs additional consideration as you ponder string encodings and which of 6 ways to declare your pointers (smart, shared, dumb, reference, constness, etc...).
The upper limit of manageable complexity is higher in C# than in C++, because when the structure becomes more complicated, the code does not. The complexity is managed in a parallel way, a way that does not impact the programmer when trying to read and understand a lone function.
Maybe with time I'll be able to background the necessary considerations in C++ and be able to acheive similar productivity. Or maybe I'm just spoiled by the cleanliness of C# lambdas, extensions, and continuations. The only thing to do is to try and see if I can get there. Tsuyoku Naritai indeed.